Mobile Learning Curriculum Framework (MLCF)

Facilitated by Adele Botha

The list of all the recorded MobiMOOC webinars can be found here

The Mobile Learning Curriculum Framework website can be viewed here:


Online webinar information

Webinar on Mobile Learning Curriculum Framework by Adele Botha which takes a look at:
  • mLearning projects throughout Africa, against a framework ranging from Low Mobility/Low Contextuality all the way to High Mobility/High Contextuality,
  • The earn-as-you-learn principle (wonderfully motivating for students/learners),
  • And the concept and content of the Mobile Learning Curriculum Framework in its 3rd version.
The recording can be found here:
For those on mobile:

During the live session Adele Botha will shed light on the concept of a mobile learning curriculum and ask for all of our feedback on the mobile learning curriculum framework that can be used to set up, embed or roll out a mobile learning curriculum.

Discussion Forum

Link to the Google Group discussion forum where we will discuss the Mobile Learning Curriculum Framework!forum/mobimooc-curriculum




17 September
Webinar on the Mobile Learning Curriculum Framework is planned for Monday 17 September 2012 at 5.00 PM, Brussels, Central European time (look here for a list of YOUR local times organized per country/city) This webinar can be followed at this URL (make sure you have a headset for optimal listening/speaking quality)

Discussion on!forum/mobimooc-curriculum

Review of
THEME 1: The Impact of Mobiles on People, Communities and Societies


18 September
Discussion on!forum/mobimooc-curriculum

Review of

THEME 2: The Impact of Mobiles on the Economy


19 September
Discussion on!forum/mobimooc-curriculum

Review of

THEME 3: The Impact of Mobiles on Learning


20 September
Discussion on!forum/mobimooc-curriculum

Review of

THEME 4: The Nature of the Technology, Systems and Devices


21 September
Discussion on!forum/mobimooc-curriculum

Review of

THEME 4: Moving towards change


This link opens a paper on the Mobile Learning Curriculum Framework that was presented during the IST Africa Conference in 2012.

Citation of this Collaborative Work.
Botha, A. ed., 2012 Mobile Learning Curriculum Framework, CSIR Meraka Collaboration (in press).

Contact details

Research website:
Twitter: @adele_b
Please consider joining the Mobile Learning Research group at
Mobile Learning Research Group


The worldwide nearly ubiquitous access to mobile technology provides the education domain with new challenges and many exciting opportunities. Utilization is, however, often hampered by the knowledgeable implementation of the technology in ways that are relevant and meaningful to the education. To assist in preparing in-service and pre-service educators, NGO’s, practitioners, researchers and instructors to utilise mobile technology a Mobile Learning Curriculum is deemed be a significant advantage in furthering the goals of education for all.

The domain collaboration, initiated with seed funding from the South African Department of Science and Technology, embarked on a systematic and comprehensive Design Research process in producing this Mobile Learning Curriculum Framework (MLCF). The process is documented, monitored and evaluated by Prof Marlien Herselman through the initial drafting, reviewing and validation by domain experts, practitioners and the research community. This refinement included a number of regional workshops. The process of developing the MLCF, was initiated in 2011 and will run a course of 2 years to finalisation.

This MLCF document presents a snapshot of a vast and dynamic field. Maintaining the currency of this curriculum will be an on-going ideal and the responsibility of the community of practitioners and domain experts. The creation of a living document is thus an opportunity as well as a challenge to the domain itself. As a consequence of the momentary nature of this Mobile Learning Curriculum, themes for inclusion were considered to be of immediate relevance to cover the breath of the field. It is acknowledged that the terms used are perhaps more relevant to the South African educational domain and a brief outline of the semantics are incorporated for that purpose. That being said, producing a curriculum framework that has an international or even national relevance was dismissed very early on in the deliberations. As such this curriculum framework consists of a number of themes and related modules as a generic offering. These themes were harvested from the domain and a first draft compiled by John Traxler, an undisputed domain expert. It is left to the implementing institution to adapt the curriculum to reflect local societal and institutional needs.

This document will, when completed, consist of two parts.
  • Part 1 will outline the Mobile Learning Curriculum Framework in which a bouquet of themes and modules are outlined for inclusion in a course.
  • Part 2 presents examples of the curriculum that have been adapted and the resulting courseware that was developed. (This is currently beyond the scope of this course but examples that are Creative Commons ( or we would love to include it in the final version.

The MLCF was matured and delivered from the midst of a very vibrant research community of practice. The scope and components of the living MLCF was continuously negotiated and critiqued and the final product represents a concrete manifestation of the distributed knowledge and passion of a collective research community. It only remains to give credit to the dynamic researchers, practitioners and many stakeholders within the community that have truly produced this curriculum from within its midst. It is my hope that this document will remain a living entity that remains relevant within the dynamic end ever changing world of emerging educational technologies and continue to contribute to what Mobile Learning is ultimately about … learning.

Next Steps

This is the first general review following on an expert review. Your inputs and comments are highly valued and all contributions will be acknowledged in the final version.

How to contribute

  • Each day we will focus on a different theme and its related modules.
  • Contributions are welcomed related to adding additional resources and reading.
  • Contributions are welcomed related to amending / addition or editing the themes and or modules.
  • Each theme and module links to a Google form (links to follow) were you can comment and contribute.
  • Please clearly state your name and affiliation for inclusion.


In the wake of a telecommunications landscape that has dramatically changed, accesses to Mobile devices have become ubiquitous worldwide. This has impacted on nearly every sphere of society as mobility and connectedness becomes more predominant. The education domain has not been exempt to the tidal wave of innovation and in the last decade or so there have been many examples of successful mobile learning pilots and practitioner-led innovation and implementation in the use of mobile devices to support teaching and learning. Mobile learning is now part and parcel of a new learning landscape resulting from the availability of the technologies and confronts education systems with as many responsibilities as opportunities.
These responsibilities as opportunities have been thoroughly interrogated in the UNESCO Working Paper Series on Mobile Learning [1].This comprehensive set of papers articulates various mobile technology support strategies towards the United Nations Education for All goal within the educational contexts. It outlines instances where mobile technology has enriched formal schooling through personalisation and added a flexible dimension as well as extending the geographical and social reach of the education system. As such a review of these issues here are mute.

As the conversations change from whether Mobile Learning is a strategic option to how Mobile Learning can be operationalised, the question of facilitator competence is raised time and again. This endeavour was initiated in response to an international need for some type of training or formalised academic intervention.

This mobile learning curriculum is a first attempt to systematically and comprehensively explore where and how mobiles should appear within educational provision. The various headings (themes) and sub-headings (modules) embody a taxonomy, a way of representing and organising themes and content. The endeavour assumed that learning with mobiles is only part of a wider interaction between technology, in this case mobile technology, and society. Seeing that education fits into a wider agenda of the social, economic, ethical and philosophical, the Mobile Learning Curriculum Framework is set out as a varied and fairly high-level description of material and motivation.

The Framework presents itself through three broad learning as
  • to know about mobile learning,
  • to be able to facilitate mobile learning and
  • to understand the implications of implementing mobile learning.

Each of these is linked to some sample outcomes mapped to different levels of competencies. Assessment is covered as a generic issue relevant to Mobile Learning and would have to be specified through the process of implementation.

Clearly, there are several additional challenges and concerns. Many of these cluster around, on the one hand ensuring authentic teaching and learning (that the medium and the message are aligned), and on the other hand appropriate and consensual agency, safety and control. The balance between these within any institution and its students will depend on the history, culture and ethos of the institution and its hinterland, the maturity of the students, the capacity of the teachers and the nature and extent of resources.

The individual themes and modules are subject to rapid change and some key challenges envisaged are those of being relevant, being balanced, staying topical and anticipating change. These are particularly critical in the current fast-changing technology environment.

Conceptualising the notion of Mobile Learning

(Acknowledging Mike Sharples 's significant contribution to this section!)
Experience and expertise in the development and delivery of Mobile Learning has resulted in a discrete community of practice evolving separate from the e-Learning community. Mobile Learning has had a propensity to focus primarily on producing solutions and has tentatively developed distinctive theoretical conceptualisations (Hagen, Robertson, Kan, & Sadler, 2005; Traxler, 2009). The term Mobile Learning is currently applied to a vast area of learning exploits with handheld computers and mobile phones as well as other mobile devices. The focus of these interactions tends to colour the conceptualisation of what Mobile Learning is. Mike Sharples (2011)articulates current national and cultural focus as follows:
Table 2‑1: Geographic Region and current perceived focus of Mobile Learning
Geographic Area
Application of Mobile Learning
M4D (mobile learning for development)
Focus on access, emerging contexts, basic technologies
United States
Anytime, anywhere learning Corporate training
Focus on delivery, relevance
1 to 1 learning
Focus on personalised learning in classrooms and field trips
Contextual learning, Connected learning
Focus on context, community, connecting formal and informal learning
Seamless learning
Focus on continuity
Personalised distance education
Focus on learning design, open content, standards
Ubiquitous learning
Focus on availability and embedding in everyday world
A single definition of Mobile Learning has been much debated and current working definitions from the literature appear to reflect the priorities of the community that has put it forward.
Solution based technology research have a propensity to define Mobile Learning in terms of learning through mobile devices (Chen, Kao, & Sheu, 2003; Houser, Thornton, & Kluge, 2002; Liang, Liu et al., 2005; Quinn, 2000; Trifonova & Ronchetti, 2004). Learners are described as accessing mobile devices to “acquire and learn through a wireless transmission tool anytime and anywhere (Chen et al., 2003).” Reflecting the early solution based technology focus, Traxler (2005) initially suggested that Mobile Learning be regarded as “any educational provision where the sole or dominant technologies are handheld or palmtop devices.”
In contrast, research which has been driven by concerns emanating from a pedagogical point of view, have defined Mobile Learning in terms of the extent it has enriched a particular learning environment and the learners’ experience of learning (Farooq, Schafer, Rosson, & Carroll, 2002; Grohmann, Hofer, & Martin, 2005; Roschelle, Vahey, Tatar, & Penuel, 2003; Rushby, 2006; Young & Vetere, 2005).
Another perspective has been in terms of the mobility affordance, framing Mobile Learning as “the study of how the mobility of learners augmented by personal and public technologies can contribute to the process of gaining new knowledge, skills and experience (Sharples, Arnedillo Sánchez, Milrad, & Vavoula, 2007, p. 3).” Mobility is further deconstructed by Sharples et al. (2007) as:
  • the mobility experienced by the user due to the change in physical space,
  • the mobility as being able to interface between different technologies,
  • the mobility in conceptual space as users move between topics,
  • mobility in social spaces, and
  • the mobility over time, extending the formal learning situations as a cumulative experience.

Consensus, however, is that Mobile Learning, as a phenomenon needs to be considered in the context of the emergence of mobile phone (Laouris & Eteokleous, 2005). Traxler suggests mobile technology be recognised as fundamentally transforming societal notions of communication and understanding. Nyiri (2002, 2005) articulates this, stating that the “mobile phone is evolving towards the dominant medium. It is becoming the natural interface through which people conduct their shopping, banking, booking of flights, etc. Moreover, it is turning into the single unique instrument of mediating communication not just between people, but also between people and institutions or more generally between people and the world of inanimate objects”. Traxler (2009, p. 14) proposes that “mlearning is not about ’mobile’ as previously understood, or about ‘learning’ as previously understood, but part of a new mobile conception of society”.
Considering these perspectives, it becomes clear that the definition of Mobile Learning seems to be as fluid as the requirements of the application domain and the functionalities of the technology that support it. This being said, the notion of mobile learning as a discrete phenomenon is possibly expressed most eloquently by Kukulska-Hulme (2010) as “the key to mobile learning lies in taking advantage of the learning opportunities offered by mobile technologies, and that this typically happens when learners are not at a fixed, predetermined location, so that they are able to engage in situated learning and make use of context-specific resources. Mobile learning also enables learners to move seamlessly across different settings and to connect up learning in different locations”.


This Mobile Learning Curriculum Framework is presented by a group of mobile learning practitioners and domain experts who have been active in this field. It is based on the available body of theory and practice about Mobile Learning. The intention is for institutions to use the framework as a starting point to adapt, adopt and implement the curriculum within their local context to suit the needs of their specific target audience as set out below. As such this curriculum does not include detailed lesson plans or courseware, which is the next step for development. The design of a dedicated course, courseware and related contextualised instances from the mobile curriculum framework themes and related modules presented here is considered to be the task of the implementing organization.

For such a purpose the following strategic assumptions and operational tenets are outlined:

  • Mobile technology, within the current context of application and thus a concern for this document, is viewed as handheld devices and cover standard mobile phones, feature phones, smartphones and tablet devices. The utilisation of these devices should take into account various scenarios, ranging from one device per child through to shared devices. It is acknowledged that the Mobile Learning Curriculum should endeavour to be future-proof and take into account technology and pedagogical trends.
  • Contextualisation of the Mobile Learning Curriculum Framework is an institutional effort as a “one size fits all” approach is not possible. As the practical implementation depends on many factors and would have to address the situatedness of the stakeholders within an organisation such an endeavour would have to evolve through negotiation and consultation. However, a key consideration should remain empowerment of practitioners and an ethical mindset.

Target Audience

(Acknowledging Agnes Kukulska-Hulme significant contribution to this section!)
The Mobile Learning Curriculum Framework was initiated to address South African needs within an African context but has evolved with sufficient generality to be used as a template elsewhere. It is also general in terms of the target audience and level to accommodate the dynamic nature of the domain as well as the possible implementation intentions of such a curriculum. As such the bouquet of themes and modules could support:
  • Training. To facilitate the need for teachers, lecturers, NGO practitioners, trainers, etc. to meaningfully engage with some professional development in order to become knowledgeable about and/or be qualified in the field of mobile learning. As part of this professional development, considerations on how to plan and integrate mobile learning feature.
  • Assist teachers, lecturers and trainers who are, or will soon be, tasked with teaching a module or set of modules focused on ‘mobile learning’ to students; A bouquet of modules would be selected, adapted and used by the teachers to direct and structure their teaching about mobile learning. It could suggest available resources, mobile-enabled teaching and learning strategies, and possible ways to assess their students’ progress and knowledge.
  • Support teachers, lecturers, trainers and other practitioners specifically with integrating mobile ways of learning into their subject teaching; this selected bouquet of modules would be chosen to focus on integration or embedding mobile learning into current practice. For example, teachers and lecturers need to know about best practices in using mobile learning methods within their teaching of science, mathematics, literacy, etc, and how to make practical use of the tools available. Concerns on how best to design and organize a mobile-supported field trip in science, or what are the options for developing basic literacy through the use of mobile devices.

Learning Objectives

The three broad objectives or general instruction intentions of this Mobile Learning Curriculum Framework are set out below:

Knowledge as related to the domain content (“theory”).
Comprehension of domain knowledge forms the basis of further meaningful interactions in the domain as the student is exposed to relevant issues towards active participation.

Application as related to the practice of Mobile Learning.
The selection of relevant domain knowledge and associated presentation strategies should promote an appreciation of Mobile Learning as an academic discipline as well as a teaching and learning strategy. Through the learning of “Mobile Learning” the craft should be demonstrated and an appreciation of the consequences of decisions that involve ethical, societal, personal and community issues be imbued. Students should gain these skills in a learning environment that reflect and mirror the intension.

Critical evaluation and understanding related to the impact and affordance of Mobile Learning in context.
Technologies in general and mobile cellular technologies in specifically have had a major impact on nearly every nice of society. The attainment of the range of cognitive and practical skills should be facilitated and assessed in an integrated way in the context provided by the modules in the themes outlined in the curriculum.
Specific learning objectives derived from the curriculum for courseware will need to reflect the needs of the specific learners and organisational objectives within the context of implementation and presentation.

Learning Outcomes

(Acknowledging Inge de Waard' and the Mobile Learning Research group's significant contribution to this section!)
Considering the recommendations on European higher education made in Bologna and articulated by Kennedy, Hyland and Ryan (2006), the learning objectives overviewed in the previous section maps onto broad learning outcome through appropriate assessment. The deriving of specific learning outcomes should be linked to the established specific learning objectives as part of the adaption process for local contexts. These specific learning outcomes should reflect the needs of the learners, the organisation or institution and the timeframe.
To know, I have to…
Acquisition of domain knowledge
the acquisition of domain knowledge is mapped to Bloom’s proposed taxonomy of the cognitive domain.
Sample outcome. Quoted and adapted from Kennedy et al. (2006)
Acquire knowledge on Mobile Learning
Action verbs:
Arrange, collect, define, describe, duplicate, enumerate, examine, find, identify, label, list, memorise, name, order, outline, present, quote, recall, recognise, recollect, record, recount, relate, repeat, reproduce, show, state, tabulate, tell.

Sample outcomes:
  • Recall appropriate pedagogy for mobile learning
  • Identify and consider ethical implications using self funded personal technology.
  • Describe how the needed policies in a institution to facilitate mobile learning.
  • List the criteria to be taken into account when evaluating the appropriateness of Mobile applications for educational use.
  • Define what behaviours constitute acceptable behaviours when using personal technologies in formal education.
  • Describe how you would manage mobile devices within formal education.
This is to understand and interpret concepts and phenomena to create meaning of the phenomena of Mobile Learning.
Action verbs:
Associate, change, clarify, classify, construct, contrast, convert, decode, defend, describe, differentiate, discriminate, discuss, distinguish, estimate, explain, express, extend, generalise, identify, illustrate, indicate, infer, interpret, locate, paraphrase, predict, recognise, report.

Sample outcomes:
  • Differentiate between formal and informal applications of Mobile Learning
  • Identify participants and goals in the institutionalisation of Mobile Learning.
  • Explain the social effects of ambient presence as experienced through IM.
  • Classify mobile learning case studies by the pedagogy in use.
  • Recognise the factors that impact on a rural developmental mobile learning service in a resource constrained context.
Apply knowledge of Mobile Learning
Action verbs:
Apply, assess, calculate, change, choose, complete, compute, construct, demonstrate, develop, discover, dramatise, employ, examine, experiment, find, illustrate, interpret, manipulate, modify, operate, organise, practice, predict, prepare, produce, relate, schedule, select.

Sample outcomes:
  • Construct an a mobile learning intervention.
  • Select and employ a mobile learning application for use in a formal learning environment to enhance the STEM learning of secondary school learners.
  • Relate policy changes to institutionalisation of mobile learning.
  • Modify guidelines for acceptable use to incorporate the use of personal mobile technologies.
  • Show how the Child Act impact on the responses to sexting at school.
  • Apply principles of constructivist learning to facilitate a mobile learning interaction through the use of tablets in a distance learning university.
Analyse, knowledge, concepts and ideas about Mobile Learning
Action verbs:
Analyse, appraise, arrange, break down, calculate, categorise, classify, compare, connect, contrast, criticise, debate, deduce, determine, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, divide, examine, experiment, identify, illustrate, infer, inspect, investigate, order, outline, point out, question, relate, separate, sub-divide, test.

Sample outcomes:
  • Analyse why mobile learning can be viewed as disruptive.
  • Compare and contrast mobile learning to e-learning
  • Debate the economic and social effects using personally financed mobile technology in higher education.
  • Compare the focus and motivations of large scale grant organisation mobile learning interventions in secondary education.
Synthesis knowledge, concepts and ideas about Mobile Learning
Action verbs:
Argue, arrange, assemble, categorise, collect, combine, compile, compose, construct, create, design, develop, devise, establish, explain, formulate, generalise, generate, integrate, invent, make, manage, modify, organise, originate, plan, prepare, propose, rearrange, reconstruct, relate, reorganise, revise, rewrite, set up, summarise.

Sample outcomes:
  • Recognise and formulate problems that are relevant to mobile learning solutions.
  • Propose solutions to the lack of qualified STEM teachers using appropriate Mobile Learning solutions.
  • Summarise the causes and effects institutionalisation of Mobile Learning in Primary Education.
  • Argue the use of Mobile Technology in formal education.

To do, I have to…
Develop skills to enable Mobile Learning Practice
The following collection of skills relate to the skills deemed appropriate for enabling Mobile Learning Practice. ECTS (Wagenaar) refers to general skills that are considered transferable and specific subject related skills that pertain to specific discipline. All skills will not apply to every activity equally. A further comment to consider is that not all of the activities of a professional interaction can be explicitly described. Practitioners should be sufficiently skilled to adapt.
Skills are based on what practitioners would do in the normal course of work. However, there are some circumstances in which only some of these skills would apply and not every skill can be assessed in every practical task.
General teacher skills
  • Planning a mobile learning activity
  • Sharing experiences with other teachers (increasing quality in their own teaching and in mLearning in general)
  • Promoting and stimulating collaboration (as mLearning is all about communication, and peer-to-peer supported learning is on the rise)
  • Diagnosing educational needs of the individual
  • Continuous self-improvement to stay on top of his/her field
  • Communicating with peers and learners
  • Encouraging creativity and motivation in the learner
  • Social and cross-cultural factors (as the learner groups keep diversifying)
  • Keeping ethical behaviour in the minds of the learners (e.g. m-bullying)
  • Dealing with new language use (e.g. MXit)
Knowledge that underpins the required Mobile Learning skills
  • Understanding how content, pedagogy and technology interconnect and influence each other. Assimilating mobile learning background, research, pedagogy, challenges and opportunities in order to achieve an optimal mobile learning result.
  • Identifying a problem
  • Identifying evaluation and evaluating the mobile learning activity
Understanding the challenges of contemporary online learning environment dynamic (be it web-based or mobile)
  • Guiding large group discussions, for mLearning this is sometimes based on non-visual information,
  • Ready to stimulate and transfer mobile digital literacy
  • Being open-minded towards technology (otherwise they risk blocking student creativity)
  • Filtering information overload (fed by social media and p-2-p collaboration)
Building a personal mobile learning environment
  • Building a personal mobile learning toolbox: exploring, analyzing and selecting relevant tools, technologies and applications.
  • Understanding the affordances of each selected tool.
  • Providing a set of tools that fits the learners’ mobile device(s)
Effective mobile instructional design
  • Implementing basic mobile instructional design principles (message design, instructional strategies, multi-media utilization, implementation and possible limitation)
  • Understanding the importance of mobile affordances to develop courses
  • Being brief and concise (e.g. mobile screen txt limits)
  • Enhancing mobile digital literacy
  • Understanding the existing or lacking mobile standards and how these effect mobile design and mobile actions and building strategies to overcome them
Change management
  • Identifying challenges
  • Strategizing what happens when a mobile project is operationalized:
    • o Integrating personal context(s),
    • o Diffusion of innovation,
    • o Understanding the impact
    • o Keeping a balance between work and personal life (as mLearning can happen at any time personal time management is more important for mLearning as it transcends time and space)),
    • o Keeping abreast of developments in mobile learning
    • o Supporting mLearning qualities with parents/communities (taking out the scepticism and/or fears)

To understand, I have to…
comprehend the role and impact of the domain knowledge in relation to the application context.
Mobile Learning as personal
  • Role of personal technologies within the application context.
  • Affordance of technologies needed to access content that is only available through selected channels.
  • The impact of prolonged use and related health issues.
Mobile Learning in relation to indigenous knowledge
  • Examples used in adaption of the curriculum to reflect organizational and student needs, ideally, should be contextualized and reveal indigenous knowledge.
  • IP and self generated content.
The value and application of mobile learning knowledge in industry
  • The value of life long and further education within the context of employment.
  • Mobility of skills for an organisation and individuals.
Self created content and intellectual property
  • Open licensing and related open educational resources.
Informal learning through mobile
  • Issues such as privacy and cost are relevant

Themes and Modules

(Acknowledging John Traxler and Jacqueline Batchelor's significant contribution to this section!)

The curriculum is divided and sub-divided into a number of Themes and related Modules. There are inter-relationships between all of the modules, and so developing and delivering any course should not be seen in isolation.

Table : Themes and Modules
The Impact of Mobiles on People, Communities and Societies
The Impact of Mobiles on the Economy
The Impact of Mobiles on Learning
The Nature of the Technology, Systems and Devices
Becoming Mobile

Mobile Life: Digital Identity, Online Communities
The Nature of Goods and Services
Mobile Learning
Nature of the Technology, Systems and Devices
Governance, policy and vision
Mobile Learning: Knowing, Learning, Finding Out
The Nature of Work and Jobs
Formal Learning

Planning and pedagogy

Informal Learning

Practicalities, organisation, management and administration

The following section details the themes and related modules. Within the outline of the curriculum it is acknowledged that there are many interpretations of single words or concepts. As such we expand on the intention behind the terms used.
The term curriculum is the embodiment of a program undertaken by a member of the target audience as student that has co-ordinated themes which constitute a coherent unity related to the content, approach and assessment. As no curriculum is value free, and attempts to make it value free imply a set of values in itself, the curriculum is presented with the expectation that institutions wishing to implement it would have to imbue locally relevant values.
This curriculum consists of five themes as major constituents in inquiry. These major areas of discourse are further broken down into modules that represent themes within these areas.
The Themes and Modules are structured as follows:
  • Theme Rationale: Provides the reasons, importance and value of engaging in the topic to the target audience. Presenting a broader view of the modules contained within the specific theme. In essence, each theme contains a set of related modules
  • Module Rationale: Identify the significance and impact of doing the individual modules; the benefits involved and getting a clear understanding of the content to be delivered as well as what the participants will learn from the module.
  • Challenges: to understand and identify the possible risks and any other factors that might be overlooked which may have a negative effect or hinder the delivery of the modules. Addressing these challenges is imperative to the success of the delivery and completion of the modules.
  • Content:
Reading: Relevant reading